Citation Policy & Frequently Asked Questions

Citation Policy

©2019 by HARC, Inc. (Health Assessment and Research for Communities)
All information provided by HARC is proprietary information that belongs to HARC and is protected by U.S. and international copyright laws and conventions. Reproduction of HARC information must cite HARC as the source.

Recommended citation: HARC, Inc. (2017). Coachella Valley Community Health Survey. Available online at

If you have any questions or concerns, please contact HARC:
HARC, Inc.
75-080 Frank Sinatra Drive, Suite A221
Palm Desert, CA 92211


Q: Why wasn’t a question asked a certain year?

A: Not all questions were asked in each survey year. We have experts review the questionnaire each year to help us decide on the content.

Q: Why does the sample size or population estimate change?

A: Respondents often refuse to answer an item or report that they "do not know" the answer, resulting in missing data.  Missing respondent data are omitted from all analyses. Additionally, not all questions are asked of all respondents due to pre-programmed skip patterns.

Q: Some of the numbers have a red asterisk. What does this mean?

A: A red asterisk in a table notes a cell that is statistically unstable. You can still see the results, but HARC warns you that the cells marked with an asterisk are not stable estimates. An unstable cell has not met the criteria for a minimum number of respondents needed. HARC strongly recommends against reporting any figure accompanied by a red asterisk. Please contact HARC if you have any questions.